Most styles specialize in one or two of these, but still make use of them all to some degree. Tombak/Lembing: Spear or javelin made of bamboo, steel or wood that sometimes has horsehair attached near the blade. With their help Raden Wijaya was able to defeat the Kediri forces. Dutch East Indian newspapers of the colonial era recorded the terms for martial arts under Dutch spellings.
During the Dutch colonial era of the 18th and 19th century, the exploitative social and economic condition of the colony created the culture of the jago or local people’s champion regarded as thugs and bandits by the colonial administration. The village he founded became the Majapahit empire. Traditionally depicted as Robin Hood-like figures, they upheld justice for the common man by robbing from the rich who acquired power and status by collaborating with the colonists. This story traditionally marks the rise of Java and the dawn of its Dharmic civilisation. The jago were despised by the Dutch authorities as criminals and thieves but were highly respected by the native pribumi and local Chinese. Attacks with the fists or open hands can be modified with a pinching action of the fingers, which has its origin in the pinch-grip of the badik.
Penca instruction was traditionally done through apprenticeship, wherein prospective students offer to work as a servant in the master’s house or a labourer in the rice fields. In exchange for working during the day, the master provides the student’s meals and trains during the evening. Maluku Pencak silat in the Maluku Islands uses a wide variety of weaponry, some of which are indigenous to the area. This approach requires that exponents train their flexibility and stamina. As with Balinese warriors of the past, modern pencak practitioners in Bali often wear headbands as part of their uniform.